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  • wӻA
  • ߣMüt ԴWַ: lڣ2012-4-25 11:46:10
  • һ  wӻA
    1.0
    wwҺwĽyQ
    wԣo̶ΠSΠ׃Ȳl\
    wҎڻaеđã
    Qwݔ͆}
    Ĝy
    鏊Oṩm˵ėl
    1.1 w|
    1.1.1 Bm|ļٶ
    1.1.1.1 Bm|
    1.1.1.2.w
    gcw|cr̶д_Ĕֵwǿgλú͕rgĺ磺
        =(x,y,z,) u=u(x,y,z,)t=t(x,y,z, )
            ܶȈ                     ٶȈ              ضȈ
    1.1.2  wܶ
    xλwewе|Qܶæѱʾλkg/m_ʽ
    1.1.2.2.wܶ
       wܶcضȺ͉Pһ㮔̫ضȲ̫͵rɰw̎@wܶӋ㹫ʽ飺
    1.àBӋ
     3.BӋ
    1.1.2.4 wƽܶ
    1.wMֻǰ|׃t1m3Һw|ڸMֆΪڕr|֮ϚwܶȦmɰʽӋ㣺
    m=yii         
    ʽУyiMiڻеwe(|)
              iMiΪڕrܶkg/m3

    3.ռwܶȵӋ㣺
    1.1.3   wճԺw
    1.1.3.1 ţDճԶ
    wеԣһo̶ΠȲa\һ\ӵĠBw߀п܃ǰ\ӵQճ@ɷǻìܵăɷ
    ճԵĴʹw^wrճγһoֹwͬrwȲg໥oֹwӌcwӵsʹ׃@NsShxp@NٵIJwȲ֮g\

    wڈA܃ӕrHDZָɟoOĈAͲһһQwԲͬٶǰ\Dʾڌg\ÿwӌcwӮaһNwӌÿwӄtaһNK@ɷNСȷ෴ӕrwȲɌg໥õļ@N\wȲwg໥QĦճ@NĦĴawӕr횿˷ĦĶӵһ֙CеD׃pĵ

    Ӱ푼Сأ
    OЃɉKƽƽgСҳMҺw°̶ϰʩһƽƽʹƽٶu0\˕rɰgҺwֳ͕ɟoƽеıӶ\oNϰϵһҺwٶu0\¸Һwٶνճ°ҺٶȞٶȷֲDʾ
    CһҺwFcwӵٶȲucɌgĴֱxyɷcɌgĽ|eS

    ucyPϵԼʽʾ飺
    1.1.3.2 wճ
    1.ճȣ
    ţDճԶɿıϵ̷QճQճںwճԴСֱ^Fwճֻ\ӕrűF
    ճw|֮һֵɌyҺwճSض߶pСwճȄtSض߶׃rҺwճȻ׃wճSڹӋпɺԲӋֻژO߻O͵ĉ²ſ]Ӱ
    SIճȵĆλPasijЩփвõճȆλ鲴(P)λg/cms;岴(cP)ǷλQPϵ飺
    1cP10-3Pas 
    2.\ճ
    ճȦcܶȦѵıֵʾQ\ճԷ̖ͱʾλm/s
    ͣ/
    3.ƽճ
    1.1.3.3 wcճw
    wȫ]ճԵw=0w
    ճw(Hw)ճԵw̡0w
    ȻдڵwճʲwǞ麆Ӌ
    ճȺСwҕw
    ճ^СwͨȌҕwҳҎɺٿ]ճȵӰwķY
    ճ^wܰσɷN̎
    1.1.4 wĿɉsɉswɉsw
    1.1.4.1 wĿɉs
    xwϵl׃rwweS֮׃Ésϵ±ʾ


    ʽУԣwım3/kg

    wױs
    1.1.4.2 ɉsw
    xwĉsԿԺ(¡0)w
    ڲɉsw¡0d/dp=0ܶȲS׃Q֮ܶȞ鳣w鲻ɉsw
    1.1.4.3 ɉsw
    xwĉsԲԺ(¡0)w
    ڿɉsw¡ 0d/dp0ܶS׃Q֮ܶȲ鳣w鲻ɉsw

    ҊҺwٲɉswwٿɉswwݔ^Љ׃ܶȸ׃಻rɰɉsw̎

    ڶ woֹĻ
    woWоw̎oֹBµƽҎDz׃oֹr׃ăHHlj䌍|ӑՓoֹwȲ()ֲҎ
    1.2.1 wϵ
    wӕrܵ֞ɷN
    1.2.1.1 we
    xw|cϵķǽ|cw|Q|w|cweַQwexo늴
    1.2.1.2
    xwϵĽ|ceQ牺ֱڱQ鉺ƽڱQ 
    1.2.2 oֹwĉ
    oֹwֻЉo
    Ķxoֹwwλeܵķpʾ


    1.wԪ
    wķ洹ֱָ
    oֹwȲһc̎wڸ϶ȵ
    2..ĆλQ
    ĆλN/m2Q˹̖Pa^ȥõĉλܶ˜ʴ≺(atm)̴≺(kgf/cm2̖at)׹(mmHg)ˮ(mH2O)(bar)QPϵ飺
    1atm1.033kgf/cm21.0133105Pa760mmHg
    10.33mH2O1.013bar   (P18)
    1at1kgf/cm20.9807105Pa=10mH2O=0.9807bar
    3.ıʾ
    ٽ^(^)Խ^՞cӋĉwČH挍S≺׃׃
    ڱ퉺(퉺)ywĽ^≺rÉMМyϵx(ָʾֵ)ӳywĽ^ȴ≺߳ĔֵQ퉺
    퉺^-≺ 

    3.ն(ؓ)ywĽ^С≺rձyձϵxӳywĽ^ڴ≺IJֵQն
    նȣ≺-^
    @Ȼնȣ퉺
    ^퉺նȺʹ≺֮gPϵҊD
    1.2.3 woWʽ
    oֹwȲ׃ҎɵĔW_ʽ 
    1.2.3.1 ʽƌ
    ܶȞѵoֹҺwȡeAҺ
    P1ϵķ
    P2µķ
    WҺ

    ȡҺϱҺϷp0tҺ߶Ȟh̎飺p=p0+gh     
    oֹwȲ׃Ҏ
      ڕr p0≺]r p0Һw
    1.2.3.2 ʽӑՓ
    1. oֹwȲcgĴСֻc䴹ֱxwܶPcˮƽλúΠoP
    2.oֹҺwλ1̎p1l׃rλ2̎p2lͬӴС׃Ђf(Һw) 
    3.p0=constr ѡphp

    4.ʽh=(p-p0)/g֪ĴСҺw߶ȱʾעҺwN
    5.oֹBmͬһw̎ͬһˮƽϸcĉQȉe
    6.ښwܶS̎λø߶ȶ׃ԓʽmڻ@N׃СʿJȻmҽJp2=p1
    7.ǰʽmÈϣ
    oֹBmͬNw
    oֹBmͬNw
    1.2.4 oWʽđ
    1.2.4.1 Ĝy
    woWʽ
    ywĉ͉Ĝyx
    QҺӋ͵ЃɷN
    1.U͹܉Ӌ
    p1-p2=(A-)gR f
    ܵеwwrA>>
    p1-p2֦AgR
    ڜyܵб퉺rֻUҶcͨ˕rp1-pa=gx+AgR
    ۜyܵնȕrֻUcͨ˕rpa-p2=gx+AgR
    2.΢Ӌ
    xxܶСָʾҺɲ΢Ӌ
    YU͹ܵăɶ˲OɔUU҃ȏU͹܃ȏ10ӋbܶoWăָʾҺACҦA>C
    yrɶ˷քecycBڔUҽehhUܽʹU͹܃ָʾҺAҺܴrɔUָ҃ʾҺCҺ׃Ҳ΢ӋrϿJҺ
    ͬһ߶
    xȉoWʽã
    p1-p2=(A-C)gR
    ֻҪxָʾҺACܶ^ӽ
    ɌRŴͨU͹ܵĎױ

    1-1 ijObһʽUˮyӋgMˮ֪ijcĘ˸߷քe飺h0=1.8m,h2=1.3m,
    h4=2.2mh6=1.0m,h8=2.5mOˮϷı퉺
    ⣺xȉ2-24-46-6oWʽ
    p2-pa=Hgg(h0-h2)p4-p2=-H2Og(h4-h2)
    p6-p4=Hgg(h4-h6)p-p6=-H2Og(h8-h6)
    ӣp-pa=Hgg(h0-h2+h4-h6)
    -H2Og(h4-h2+h8-h6)
    =136009.81(1.8-1.3+2.2-1.0)
    -10009.81(2.2-1.3+2.5-1.0)
    =203263.2N/m2=0.203MPa(퉺)
    1.2.4.2 ҺλĜy
    ԭʼҺλӋǸBͨԭױںҺϷ̎_òBҺ漴Һλ߶
    ҺӋyҺλһNǣOⰲbһƽҵU͹܉Ӌ²bָʾҺcOײBͨƽcOϷӲbcOͬҺwҺ߶ȾSOҺS_߶ɉӋָʾҺxR֪OҺλĸ߶
    Oȉpra-aȉoẈ
    p+gx+AgR=p+g(h+x+R)

    1-2 ]ʢ(1=800kg/m3)ˮ(2=1000kg/m3)ײ픲һB֪ͨͺˮ߶(h1+h2)=1.4mҺh=1.2m͌Ӹ߶h1
    1.2.4.3 Һ߶ȵӋ
    aО˰ȫaȆ}OһҺw߶ȷ]wQҺ
    ã
    ٱOȲ^ijһ
    ڷֹȚwݳ
    ղrʹ՚©
    ԓҺw߶ҪwoWʽ_

    1-3 鱣COijw^119.6kPaⲿbOȫˮ(D)Ӌˮܑˮ¸߶h0ش≺100kPa
    wӵĻ 1.3.1 BcǷB
    wܶȵPǷSrg׃Ԍww֞鷀BӺͷǷB
    2.ǷB
    1.3.3 cƽ
    ǰӑՓoֹwȲ׃ҎӑՓw^иN׃Ҏƌwڹ܃ӕrĻʽ
    1.3.3.1  ()
    ʣλrg^ܵһwЃɷN
    1.we(we)Vsλrgw^ܵһweλm3/s
    2.|(|)Wλrgw^ܵһ|λkg/s
    ֮gPϵ W =VsѪ
    1.3.3.2 ƽu
    λrgwӷ^ľxλm/sӳ̶
    vܵһϸcٸϞӋ㷽ָͨܽٵƽֵu=Vs/A
            W =VsѣubA
    ښwweSض׃Ķٰl׃һ
    1.3.3.3 |Gλrgw^λܵe|kg/m2sַQ|ͨ
    G= W /A= ubA /A=ubѪ
    fٵĴСӳܵwӵĔͿ̶
    1.3.3.4 ܏Ӌ
    ÈAι·Ӌʽõ
    ·Ӌʾ
    1-4:7m3/hݔԁˮԇxmĹ·
    ⣺1.P291-1xu=1.2m/s
    2.Ӌ܃ȏd
    1.3.4 ͑BcZ
    ţDճԶָwǷ֌ӵrHwӵβǷ֌ӠB1883ӢWҊW˹Z(OsbReynolds)MеČʾwӕrڃɷNȻͬΑBZ
    1.3.4.1 Z
    Dˮλ㶨ˮ²bһMڵIJyT{܃
    ˮM̎
    һСcˮ
    ܶɫҺw
    ι
    FF ܃ʸ׃
    rtɫҺw͑B

    ֱ
    ˾^
    ˮɫ
    fwӕrڃɷNȻͬͣ
    w|cnjӠǰc܇|coκκ^
    w|cwSFҎt}Ąӄ
    1.3.4.2 Z
    ͵IJͬwgMеĻW^Ӱ푲ͬһ^M֮ǰϾҪ֪ό֪܃͑BƺQͬwͬ·MеĴw|·ͲlͮaӰubܶȦճȦ܏d@ĂMʽQZʔReʾ


    ZoVQʔoVȺ
    [f]
    AZӋ㣺

    LjAZӋ㣺ֱdeAֱddeˮ돽Ӌ

     


    de: ֱrHˮ돽A:ͨeLp:߅L
    ZДͣ(1)Re<2000rnjQ^(2)Re>4000rQ^(3)Re=20004000rЕrFЕrFQ^Ʌ^

    [ע]
    mRe֞^ֻЃɷN^Ʌ^һNֻһN_^ǷȡQɔ_lͷĸ׃ӵȶ׌İl
    (2)^ʔָׂЃ“ϵoVlMĔȺȷӳ֮gă“ϵfijһF^̵ı|ReHϷӳwБT(ub2)c(ub/d)ČPϵRefTռλĄӳ̶Ⱦ

    Д}
    1-5֪ˮƽٞ2m/sˮܶȺճȷքe998.2kg/m3100.510-5Pa.sԇДˮӵ͑B
    (1)ȏ50mmĈA܃;
    (2)40mmߞ60mmľ
    (3)ȹ⏽25mm܃ȏ70mmĭh϶
    (1)

    Re>4000     Ӟ

    (2)Oaߞbt

     


    (2)Oȹ⏽d1܃ȏd2t
    1.3.4.3 (P79 1.8.1)
    1.wȲ|c\ӷʽ
    rw|cعSҎtƽ|cӴη
    rw|csyoµڸԴСͬ\Q顰}ӡ|c}ʹײϳ̶ȣĄӣӄӷ߀ǰ|cٶȵĴСͷ򲻔׃\Ӆr횲ƽķ|c}Ļ
    2.wڈA܃ȵٶȷֲͬ
    oՓnj߀wڹ܃ӕrϸcٶSԓccĵľx׃@N׃PϵQٶȷֲһܱ̎w|cٞx_ܱںu̎_wֲҎͶ
    1.
      ٶȷֲʒタ̎ٶƽٶubٶumaxһub=0.5umax
    2.wڈA܃ȵٶȷֲͬ m
    2.
    yõٶȷֲDʾw|cďҷxcʹIJָcٶȱ˴˳{ٶȷֲ^CReԽ픲ԽVƽ̹ܱ̎|cٶEȻ½
    ub=(0.8~0.82)umax
    Ȼrܱ̎ٞtܱڵwȻ@һӵıQȌSReӶpСČ׌ٶȝuڌȌcw֮gһ^Ɍ(ˌӃȼȷnjҲ)IJw^ȌmȻܱ|W^̶^Ӱ
    1.3.4.4 ߅ӵĸP75 1.7.5
    1.߅ӵγ
    wƽϷ^HwԾuS_ƽڰӰoNһwٶȽw໥gҷʹwҲ^p@ӵĴֱϮaٶݶwhx@NӰС׃Ҳ@ֱٻcwuSһ
    ճڱ渽γٶ
    ^wQ߅

    @ƽϷӵw֞ɂ^һDZ̎ٶ׃^ą^߅Ӆ^ճҪԓ^һhxٶȻ׃ą^Q^еճԺһٶ_wٵ99%̎ҎɅ^ķֽ羀Dʾ

    ߅ӵγҪwճȫճڱoֹwcwgaĦʹpγɵ
    ߅γɺһ㲻ٸ׃߅Ӄȵӿɞɞڽ̎һȌӴ߅ӵĴڌ|ҪӰоҪ߅ӺȦ߅ӃȵӠBa
    2. ߅ӵİlչ
    Ħ^wijmʹ߅ӺSxLu׃Q߅ӵİlչ
    ڰlչ^߅пܱ֌ҲD׃ٵķֲl׃һAֻЮ_һxűӷڜy܃ٻȅrycxM̎xٷֲֲ׃ƽֱܵõʴ_ĽYһ㷀Lxc=(50100)d̎rԓҪЩ
    Ĺ  wӵĿ㷽
    1.4.1 
    wWоw\^P׃Ҏ
    㷽ͨ^|غغ㼰غԭ팦^M|Ķ@֮gă“ϵ׃ҎwWо
    wrAָĺĿgx
    棺rwķ]߅
    ֿ(^)΢ֺ
    cɺ^߶ȵĿwⲿ(Mڼh)P׃wȲƽ׃Q^еϺDQcԼOrSЌHxĆ}
    1.4.2 | 1.4.2.1|ͨñ_ʽ
    DʾĿwOweVĿeA΢ԪedAdAwܶȞٞudAķnٶuc΢ԪegAǞt^΢Ԫe|ʞu  cosdAt^|ʞ飺

    ڿwVȡһ΢ԪwedV|dVwMweɵw˲
    r|                         wȵ|eʞ飺

     

    |غ㶨ɣݔ뿂|ݔ|^̷e
    t ݔ|ʣݔ|ʣ^|e
    ݔ|ʣݔ|ʣ^|e=0
    ԣ

    ʽ鿂|㷽̵ͨʽ
    [f]

     


    ֵr|ăݔ
    ֵؓr|ăݔ
    ֵro|ݔcݔݔݔ
    Bӕr
    1.4.2.2 BmԷ
    awͨ^·D˕rwӷcͨ^Ľ洹ֱwԽ1Ľ2

    ƏVtУ
    W =ub1A11=ub2A22==ubA=
    YՓw|׃
    wɉsў鳣ʽ飺
    Vs=ub1A1=ub2A2==ubA=
    AιܵA=d2/4BmԷ̿Ɍ飺
    ub2/ub1=(d1/d2)2
    YՓɉswweҲ׃һrɉswc܃ȏƽɷ
    f1. ·ٵ׃Ҏc·İż·ǷbйܼyTݔOȟoP
    2.ʽmBm|
    1.4.3
    1.4.3.1 Mϵy
    1.ܣ|ȲĿ1kgwеÃUʾλJ/kg
    2.᣺ϵyĭhЫ@õğ1kgwĭhЫ@õğQʾλJ/kg
    3.⹦()1kgwͨ^ݔO@õWeʾλJ/kg


    4.λܣw̎ڵе|mwԻˮƽeij߶ZĹ
          λ=mgZ
          λ܆λ=kgm/s2m=Nm=J
    1kgwλܞgZλJ/kg
    wڲͬ߶ȾвͬλλһֵSxĻˮƽλöڻϞֵžֵؓ
    5.ܣwӶе錢woֹٵuĹ
           =mub2/2
           ܆λ= kg(m/s)2=Nm=J
    1kgwĄܞub2/2 λJ/kg

    6.o()woе錢wMwerĹ
    1.4.3.2 ϵyĿʽ
    غ㶨Oϵy
    1.4.3.3 ϵyęCеܺʽ
    Wһɣ


    1.4.3.4 Ŭʽ
    ɉswݦԻܶȦў鳣t
    1.4.3.5 ŬʽӑՓ
    1.wİŬʽӑՓ
    whf=0We=0

    Dʾϵy
    2.HwİŬʽӑՓ
    ʽgZub2/2p/ָijwеWehfָwڃɽg@úĵ
    pʧ(pʧ) hf
    Cе܏ijһ浽һēpʧ
    Ópʧܻ֏
    ơֱָܺ;ֲpʧ
    ⹦We
    awĿCе
    ݔO䌦λ|wЧ@һxwݔO
    ݔOЧSʵӋ㣺
    ЧNeλrgݔOЧkW
    SNS蹦KwӋ㹫ʽ
    Ne=WeW       N=Ne/
    3.ɉswİŬʽӑՓ
    ڿɉswɽ扺׃Сԭ^20(p1-p2)/p1<20%rԿʹʽܶһ헑ƽܶȦm
    4.oֹwӑՓ
    oֹwub1=ub2=0,hf=0,We=0,

    p2=p1+g(z1-z2)
    ʽoWʽҊoֹӵһN
    5.ʲͬӑՓ
    Ԇλ(1N)wʣ      
    ǰʽ헳gã
    Ԇλwe(1m3)wʣ
    Ԇλ|wʵİŬʽĸ헳wܶã
    gz1+ ub12/2+p1= gz2+ ub22/2+p2+ѡhf
    헆λ(Nm/kg)(kg/m3)=Nm/m3=J/m3=Paʾλwewе
    1.4.3.6 Ŭʽđ
    (һ)ðŬʽ}Ҫc
    1.DP
    2.xȡע⣺
    ɽ摪cഹֱ
    ɽgwBm
    ɽ摪x֪ĵط

    ɽ摪δ֪
    ɽ摪cpʧhfһ
    ʽ˵ęCеܞʼ̎węCеҶ˵ęCеܞKֹ̎węCе
    3.ˮƽxȡע⣺
    ɽ摪xͬһˮƽ
    Mʹijһλܞ
    4.λıʾҪһ£
    λͬһλƼ
    퉺^ɽһ
    5.ɉsϵyҪД׃
    ()Ŭʽđ
    1._·w
    [1-5] 20՚^ˮƽͨLܵڃȏ300mmus200mm̎FζΜyñ퉺1200Pa800Pa՚^Fζεpʧ1.60J/kgش≺100kPa՚
    ⣺wٿɉswД׃
    (p1-p2)/p1=(1200-800)/(100103+1200)=0.4%<20%ʿɑðŬ
    xֹ܉̎1-1܉̎2-2ԹľƽˮƽڃɽgаỤ̆
    gz1+ub12/2+p1/m+We=gz2+ub22/2+p2/m+hf
    Уz1=0,p1=1200Pa(퉺)
    We=0z2=0,p2=800Pa(퉺)
    hf=1.60J/kg
    ()Ŭʽđ(m)

     

     

    “(1)(2)ã
    u1=12.8m/s, u2=28.8m/s
    ՚we
    2._gλ
    [1-6] ܶȞ900kg/m3ҺĸλλۃҺ㶨նȞ8.0kPaM6m3/hݔ͹Ҏ452.5mm䓹Һڹ܃pʧ30J/kg()ӋλۃҺڹܸ߶h
    ⣺xλҺ1-1ܳڃȂȞ2-22-2ˮƽڃɽgаỤ̆
    gz1+ub12/2+p1/+We=gz2+ub22/2+p2/+hf
    Уz1=h,ub10,p1=0(퉺)We=0,z2=0ub2=6/(3600/40.042)=1.33m/s
    p2=-8.0103Pa(퉺)hf=30J/kg
    h=(ub22/2+p2/+hf)/g
    =(1.332/2-8.0103/900+30)=2.24m
    ߶Ǟλṩ
    ܺͿ˷

    3._ݔOĹ
    [1-7] ñÌAۃ1100kg/m3Һw퉺0.2MPaĸλܳ̎AҺ20mݔ͹ܵ684mm䓹Һ30m3/hҺȫܵpʧ120J/kg(),õS(õЧʞ65%).
    ⣺xAҺ1-1ܳڃȂȞ2-21-1ˮƽڃɽgаϷ̣
    gz1+ub12/2+p1/+We=gz2+ub22/2+p2/+hf
    Уz10,ub10p1=0(퉺)z2=20m,
    ub2=30/(3600/40.062)=2.95m/s
    p2=0.2106Pa(퉺)hf=120J/kg
    We=9.8120+2.952/2+0.2106/1100+120
    =502.37J/kg
    W=301100/3600=9.17kg/s
    N=Ne/=WeW/
    =502.379.17/(0.651000)=7.08kW
    4._·wĉ
    [1-8]ˮ50m3/h,Mڹܞ1144mm䓹Mڹ·ȫpʧ10J/kg̎߳ˮ4.5mM̎ձx
    ⣺xˮҺ1-1Mձ̎2-21-1ˮƽڃɽgаỤ̆
    gz1+ub12/2+p1/+We=gz2+ub22/2+p2/+hf
    У z10,ub10p1=0(퉺) We=0 z2=4.5m
    ub2=50/(3600/40.1062)=1.58m/s
    p2=-(gz2+ub22/2+hf)
    =-1000(9.814.5+1.582/2+10)
    =-55393Pa(퉺)
    ձx
    p=-p2=5.54104Pa(ն)
    ʮ Ӌ
    1.10.1 aęC
    aԭڣwճӕrڃĦF@aĸԴwc|Ĺw֮gǴʹwȲl\ṩaėlaĴСcw|^xΠP

    1.10.2 ܃Ӌ
    1.10.2.1
    Ŭеġhfָ·ϵyĿpʧֱ;ֲ
    ֱwһ܏ֱܕrwăĦapʧhfʾ
    ܼwܼyTܽͻȻUsСȾֲطpʧhfʾ
    hf=hf+h f

    wʲͬŬʽвͬʽpʧҲвͬʾʽ
    hf1kgwӕrpʧęCеJ/kg
    Hf= hf/g1NwӕrpʧęCеJ/N=Pa;
    pf=ѡhf1m3ӕrpʧęCеJ/m3=mQĉҲmmHgw߶ȱʾλ
    cpą^e
    ٸͬ
    ֵٔȣŬʽ׃Q飺
    p=p1-p2=-We-gZ- Ѧub2/2+pf
    We=0, Z=0, ub2=0r p=pf
    1.10.2.2 ֱеĦ
    1.ӋAֱͨʽ
    DʾBϵyr
    ƄP-P(p-p)d/4   cӷͬ
    ĦF=s=ӡСdl             cӷ෴
    wڹ܃ȄӣƄ=Ħ
    (p-p)d/4 = ӡСdl              (1)
    1-1c2-2gаŬғǰˮƽõĵȏֱܵwڟo⹦ݔr
    p= p-p =pf                                                (2)
    “(1)(2)ʽã

    Č֪wr²Ůaw܏cLͬrpʧҊpʧcPڄub2/2cpʧhfλͬʳpʧʾub2/2ɱPϵ
    2.ܱڴֲڶȌĦϵӰ
    ܵ|ͼӹrIJͬ֞⻬ܺʹֲڹͨѲS~Ϲܵҕ⻬䓹TFܵОֲڹԅ^eܱڠrHϹܱڵĴֲڳ̶cʹÕrggY̶ȵP
    ܱڠrùܱڴֲڶȱʾ֣
    ٽ^ֲڶeָ͹ֵƽ߶
    ֲڶָec܏d֮ȼe/dܸõطӳeӠrӰʹ
     
    2.ܱڴֲڶȌĦϵӰ(m)
    rw֌ܱϰ͹ƽIJֱҎtwweĴСδ׃ٶȷֲ̓ĦҎaӰʦceoP
    r׌ӺȦbetceoPbӱڵ}֮͹c|clײʹĄӼӄe˵Ӱ푲ݺҕRebС@NӰ@ 
    3.rĦϵ
    ˮƽȏ·ڹS̎ȡw
    Ƅ(p1-p2)r2=pfr2

    гԹܽϵƽӋ㉺
    hνedA=2rdr
    ͨ^hνewedVs=urdA=ur2rdr
    eޣr=0~R, Vs=0~Vs
    4.rĦϵcV
    1).V
    raĿĦɱʾӣ(̣e)du/dyڜuճewԅСwӠrQȲ_֟oyֹ߀ȫՓrĦϵĹʽ
        @}ϳՓcYϵķPϵʽMЌrÿֻ׃һ׃׃̶׃ܶȻܴҌYP“ʽұڑõĹʽҲy˷ķԜppynj ׂ׃Mϳһo˔Ⱥ@ЩȺͿ鷽ʽе悀e׃MЌȺĔĿDZ׃@ӌcP“Ϳɺ
    fֻ΢ַ̲ܷe֕rʹV
    VĻAVһԭtͦж
    VһԭtǸҎɌи헵VȻͬŬиJ/kg
    жκVһµ̶ɱʾһMoVȺ㺯
                        f(1, 2, 3, i,)=0
      Уi=n-m
                 ioVȺĔĿ
                 nӰԓFĿ
                 mʾ@ЩĻV

    Œ^MVE£
    ͨ^ČYϵyķӰ^̵ҪҳӰ^̵ĸN׃
    rķ֪͌ӰֱСҪ؞飺Ԧ·ldleͲlub
    pf=(d,l, ub , , , e)
    ɺPϵɱʾ飺
    pf=Kdalbubcefeg
    ʽеijKָa,b,c,e,f,gֵ
    V^̵ӰؽMϳɎׂoVȺ
    ʽиVûV|(M)L(L)͕rg()ʾ
    [p]=M-2-1[d]=[l]=L,[ub]=L-1[]ML-3[]ͦ-1-1[e]L
    жi=n-m=7-3=4
    Vʽpf=Kdalbucefegеã
    M-2-1aLb(L-1 )c(ML-3 )e(ͦ-1-1)fLg          (1)
    ãM-2-1Me+f-c-fLa+b+c-3e-f+g                  
    Vһԭtʽ߅Vָ
    e+f=1, c+f=2, a+b+c-3e-f+g=-1
    6δ֪b,f,gʾa,c,eĺ̽Mã
    e=1-f,c=2-f,a=-b-f-g            (1)ʽУ
      pf=kd-b-f-glbub2-f1-ffeg=K(dub/)-f(l/d)b(e/d)gub2
    ƌ^̵õ4oVʔ
    l/dLӳ׺γߴ
    Re=dub/̴Tcճ֮ӳ
    e/dֲڶܱڵĴֲr
    Eu=pf/ub2ĉcT֮QW(Euler)ʔ
    ۽^̵ğoVȺ(ʔ)P“ʽ
    һÃ纯ʽͨ^ؚwP“ʽеĴϵ
    õĜʔP“ʽͨ^yؚwKb,f,g
    ҂Ć}pf=K(dub/)-f(l/d)b(e/d)gub2
    cֱӋͨʽpf=ˡ(l/d)(ub2/)֪
    =f(Re,e/d)
    ͨ^_cRee/dPϵ
    (1)˹(Blasius) ʽ⻬ܣ=0.3164Re-0.25
    m÷:Re=3103105
    (2)عȹʽ⻬ܣˣ0.00560.5Re-0.32
    m÷Re=31033106
    (3)в˹ʽ(Colebrook)ֲڹܣ
    Vע⣺
    ڽMϔȺ֮ǰͨ^һČҪQĆ}һԔMĿcоPz©˱ҪtõĔȺoͨ^򞽨_PϵMoPΨՓtܵõoxĔȺcȺ]“ϵ
    ^VõoVȺĺʽwPϵǰʽK,b,f,gͨ^ܴ_
    һӗl_ğoVȺPϵʽcֱӋͨʽpf=ˡ(l/d)(ub2/)^ɵóĦϵӋʽQ齛P“ʽ뽛򞹫ʽǰİ˹(Blasius) ʽعȹʽ
    5.ĦϵD
    ǰP“ʽʹÕrOڹӋһ㌢򞔵MоCe/d酢pϵИLcRePϵˆDQĦϵDDĂ^
    6. LjAֱܵĦ
    îֱdeAֱdӋ
    LjApʧZʔӋ

    1-9һ׹ܓQȹcܾ⻬ߴքe302.5mmc563mmƽضȞ40ˮ10m3/h^׹ܭh϶ÿ׹Lĉ
    1.10.2.3 ·ϵľֲ
    ڹ·ϵyֱ߀M^yTȹܼw^@ЩλrСͷl׃ʹwĄӳ̶ȼӏ߅ӷxɴuȌ™Cеܓpʧ@ЩֲλwQֲஔsһÃɷNӋ
    һϵ
    Jֲٶƽʾ飺

    ʽ:ƣϵcܼΠPɌy͵Ď׷NõĦӋ

    1.10.2.3 ·ϵľֲ(m)
    1.ͻȻUcͻȻsС
    ·ֱ׃ͻȻUrֲϵe½򞹫ʽӋ㣺


    ʽУA1ܽem2
                A2ֹܽem2
    ·ֱ׃ͻȻsСrֲϵc½򞹫ʽӋ㣺


    ʽУA1ֹܽem2
                A2ܽem2

    2.Mcڪ
    MڣwM܃ɿɺܴĽͻȻMСĽA2/A10ͻȻsС򞹫ʽæƣ0.5QMϵæi=0.5ʾ
    ܳڣwԹ܃MŵgrɿĺСĽͻȻU󵽺ܴĽA1/A20ͻȻU򞹫ʽɵæ=1.0Qϵæo=1.0ʾ
    ע⡽ڰŬ̵đڹܽxڃȂ߀ȑcӋʾ
    3.ܼcyT
    ·ϵ珝^^ͨȿQܼ
    ܼcyTϵPփP1071-3
    Lȷ
    w^ֲطaஔ^ȏֱLȞlerֱtֲɱʾ飺
    ·ϵyĿpʧ
    ·pʧֳQ鿂pʧǹ·ȫֱcֲ֮
    1.ֲLȷӋ
    ʮһ  ·Ӌcy
    ·ӋǑwڹ܃ӕrĻҎQHaгĹ·ϵyOӋͲ}·Ӌ֣
    OӋӋ㣺owݔ΄OӋҽĹ·
    Ӌ㣺·ϵyѽ̶ǰҪһlµݔij헼gָ
    ·֣
    1.11.1 ι·Ӌ㪥
    Ӌݣ
    ֪܏dLlܼyTOálewݔݔO⹦WeOȉpOλæZ
    ֪dlleubVs(W)
    ֪ lle Vsd
    1.11.1.1 ԇ
    ubdδ֪Reδ֪˲ܴ_oðŬ
    ԇ
    1.Oˡ=(0.020.03) ɰŬӋubӋRe e/dĦϵDæˡ = (`3%)tO_t¼O
    2.Oub ɰŬ̼Ӌˡ e/d ĦϵDReubub =ub(`3%)tO_t¼O
    1.11.1.2 ȏ·
    ðŬ̺ӋҪrԇ(ubdδ֪)
    1-10 ˮ12ˮ܇g·1144mm䓹L150m(MȫܼL֮)ˮҺ㶨߳ˮܿ12mӋ·ˮ

    Oˣ0.24ãub=2.58m/s
    鸽֪12ˮ=1.23610-3Pas,ѣ1000kg/m3ȡe=0.2mm
    Re=du/=0.1062.581000/(1.23610-3)2.2105
    e/d=0.2/1060.00189
    ĦϵDвæˣ0.0241cO`
    (0.0241-0.024)/0.024=0.4%
    ʿ֪ub=2.58m/sY_ݔˮ飺

    1.11.1.3 “·

    1. ͨ^ܶε|׃ڲɉswtwe׃
    W1= W2 = W3 == W =
    ɉswVs1=Vs2=Vs3 Vs=
    (2)·Ŀpʧڸܶpʧ֮
    hf=hf1hf+hf
    1.11.2 s·
    1.11.2.1 “·
    ָ·ȳF֧օRϵĹ·D
    “·e
    1-11 ܃ˮ0.02m3s,֧1LȞ120m,ȏ0.06m֧2LȞ150m(ȫL)ȏ0.05m“ă֧ˮ
    ⣺“·c
    s1s20.02                  ٪
    1.11.2.2 ֧·
    ֧·ָHз֧oRϵĹ·Dʾ
    1.11.2.3 RϹ·
    RϹ·ָ֧ij̎RϞһ·Dʾ
    1.11.4  y
    a^̳yݔ͹ܵwٺĿǰyböNҿ_Ԅ@ʾӛ{ͿB׷NwӕrNCе໥DQPϵOӋĎ׷NӋӋ@b÷֞
    Ӌnjw׃Թڽ׃ʽʾ䉺ٲ׃㉺׃
    ӋnjwĄ׃ԉ׃ʽʾ九ڽ治׃׃
    bѭĻԭһ
    1.11.4.1  yٹ
    1.
    yٹַQƤй(Pitot tube)ÁywcٶɃɸͬ׹ܽMȹǰ˳_ǰ˷ǰڱ_ɜyСֹ߅ӷxpٜuӰyٹǰƳɰĩ˷քecҺӋByryٹ܃ȹܿwӷ̶ڹ·Dʾ

    2.yԭ
    ȹ:yõop1/Ѻ̈́ur2/2֮Q_

    f
    1.hֵҺӋxR_hcRPϵʽSõҺӋʽɸwoWʽMƌ
       U܉ӋpA-pB=(A-)gR
    2.ƽuĴ_yٹڹ˕r
           ur=umax     
    rub=umax/2
    rRemax=dumax/̡RemaxP121D142ub/umax ub        ub=(0.8~0.82)umax
    3.urʹע
    cyٹbúСYr
    ȱcֻܜy坍wһڜy܏坍w
    ʹÕrע⣺
    bڷycø50dϵֱܾxֹMڸɔ_
    ڜyٹܿڽcӷֱ
    ۜyٹֱd0c܏d֮d0/d1/50⌦Ӯaɔ_Ӱ푽Y
    쾫Ӱ표yĜʴ_ʇfУ

    1-12 Üyٹ܁yȏ100mmܵ30՚yٹܷڹĕrU͹܉Ӌx20mmH2O
    ⣺,30՚|=1.165 kg/m3,=1.8610-5 Pas
    1.11.4.2 װӋ
    1.
    װӋ_ЈA׵Ľٱ׿ڽܼӹJנAǰbоycҺӋBʹÕr÷m̶ڹܵɉӋ@ʾָʾҺ߶w
    wͨ^׿ڕreͻȻsС„EȻoܽڿװǰγwĉw
    2.yԭ
    Oװδտs̎1-1װ̎0-0r]pʧڃɽgаỤ̆

    fװӋBӉӋU͹܉Ӌr
    pA-pB=(ѣ-ѣgR,ʣ

    ub1δ֪Reδ֪C0δ֪VSoӋʲԇ
    ԇE
    ORe>Rec
    A0/A1D1-44C0
    Ӌub1VS
    УRe=d1ub1/
    3.urʹע
    c캆bcQ
    ȱcpʧ^A0/A1Сpʧpʧɰ

    1-13ڦ1654.5mm䓹ÿ׏78mmĿװӋyб֪ܶȞ880kg/m3ճȞ0.6710-3PasװӋӋָʾҺ߶Ȟ30mmHg
    ⣺ԇOReRec
    A0/A1=(d0/d1)2=(78/156)2=0.25  D1-44ãC0=0.625,Rec=7104
    1.11.4.3 Ӌ
    1.
    װӋJ׽Y^pʧɲÝusuUܴװpͻȻsС͔Uɵpʧ@ӘɵӋQ(Venturi)Ӌ(D)
    2.yԭ
    ӋӋʽcװӋ
    1.11.4.4 DӋ
    1.
    DӋһ֧΢F(ϴСF4)IJ܃һֱСD(Q)MDӲϿɞٻDӺͲ܃ȱgγһh϶ͨDӋֱbywIJܵײM픲D
    2.yԭ
    owͨ^rD̎ڵײw¶ͨ^rڭh϶̎^opСDӵ½γһʹDϸSDϸh϶uʹٽDӃɶˉҲS֮Dһ߶ʹDӃɶˉaDӵărDӾͣԓ̎@ȻD̎λcwP@DӋĹԭ
    ˕rɷտװӋʽDӋӋ㹫ʽ

    ʹÕrHֱֵDͣλõIJ̶xʹ^aSһ20ˮ20101.3kPal¿՚˶ywll׃r̶ֵMГQͬһ̶ARCRͬQPϵ飺

    Ӌ㉺׃棩DӋ
    Ӌ׃װӋӋ

    СY
    һһ
    ţDճԶ

     

    СY(m)
    ·
    NӋһNyӋ
    СY(m)
    Ă
    СY(m)
    M
    1.ܶȺճ
    2.
    3.ʺ
    4.BӺͷǷB
    5.
    Ҫ
    BmܶճZʔĸ
    ˽ⶨBǶBţDճԶţDwţDw߅ӵĸ
    woWʽ䑪
    BmԷʽ䑪
    հŬʽ䑪
    pʧđ
    պι·Ӌ˽s·c
    Ĝy

    THE  END
    Thanks
    ڹܽxcӋʾ
    Dʾijڹ

     


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